Many unique places in the World are on Mongolia’s territory, and here are seven of the more remarkable:
Highest pressure in winter
The highest atmospheric pressure center in the Northern Hemisphere in winter forms in Mongolia. The center comprises the Uvs Nuur and Khyargas Nuur Lakes Depression and is called the Asian Center of highest atmospheric pressure. The atmospheric pressure reaches 1.055 hPa in January in the town of Ulaangom, in the main center.
World’s northern most desert
The northernmost desert in the World is in Mongolia: the Buurug Els, in the Zuungobi Soum in Uvs Aimag, where the sand dune belt reaches 50018′ north latitude. This is parallel with the southern part of Canada.
World’s southern most permafrost
The southernmost limit of permafrost in the Northern Hemisphere is in Erdenetsogt Soum of Bayan-Hongor Aimag, at 46017′ north latitude near the Daragt Mountain.
Permafrost nearest to desert
The distance between the Buurug Els and the southern border of permafrost is only about 700 kilometers. There is no other place on the Earth where a desert has penetrated so far north and permafrost so close to the south.
Watershed of the World
The peak of Tsogt Chandmana Uul, at the end of the Khentii Mountain Range, is the watershed of three huge drainage basins: the Arctic Ocean, Pacific Ocean and the Inland Basin of Central Asia. It is only 80 kilometers south of Ulaanbaatar, at 1.854 meter above sea level.
World’s longest active fault line
A remarkable surface fault line- the Bulgan Fault- is probably the longest active fault line in the World. The fault moved in the earthquake of 23 July 1905, with a violence of 8.2 (Khil’ko and others 1985) to 8.7 (Richter 1958) on the Richter Scale, making it “one of the largest known earthquakes in continental regions” according to an international team of seismic experts (Baljinnyam and others 1993). Immediately afterwards open fissures were 60 meter deep and over 10 meter wide. Today, the fault line can be traced by a trail of destruction of broken ground and deflected streams indicating a left lateral slippage of around 11 meter -a huge devastating single movement. The fault line can be traced for almost 400 kilometers from near lake Sangiin Dalai Nuur in Hovsgol Aimag west to the Khangiltsag river headwaters in the Khan-Khukhii Range. Many faults are active in Mongolia -probably the best in the world for studying the surface effects of powerful faults on mountains, rivers, streams and soils, not only due to extreme violence of the faults but also the rare combination of aridity and permafrost which enhances the rupturing and ensure the preservation of tell-tale surface features.
Halfway from Pole to Equator
Passing through Mongolia is the 45th parallel. This is the line of latitude whose position in the same distance of 5.001 kilometers from both the equator and the North Pole. Also passing through Mongolia is the 90th meridian. This is the line of longitude whose position is exactly half-way between 0 and 180 degrees longitude with a distance of 6.414 kilometers from each.