Here is brief quick facts about Mongolia.
Completely landlocked between two large neighbors Russian Federation and China.
Mongolia is the 6th largest country in Asia, and the 18th largest in the world.
Surface area: 1.566.500 square km.
Average altitude: 1.580m above sea level. Ulaanbaatar : 1.350m above sea level.
Highest mountain: 4.653m above sea level.
Coldest month: January Average temperature : – 35C
Warmest month: July Average temperature: +25C
A remarkably sunny country, enjoying 250 sunny days a year , often with clear cloudless skies.
Rainfall and Snow
Snow and rainfall are very low, the climate is arid. However, enough rain usually occurs in July and August to swell rivers, and snow blizzards can occur in winter. The highest peaks have small glaciers.
Remarkable scenery. Mountains dominate two thirds of the country. Mongolia’s highest peaks are permanently snow-capped and with glaciers. Some 2.000 lakes exist, and the largest rivers exit Mongolia northwards to feed lake Baikal in Siberia .The mountainous area include relatively wet mountain meadow pastures and steppe regions. In contrast, southern Mongolia is dominated by the famous Gobi Desert.
Nearly 10% is forest, mainly in the northern part of Mongolia, close to Siberia. Most of Mongolia is wide open ‘steppe’ grasslands in transition with the arid lands of the Gobi Desert. Forests support Wolf, Wild Boar, Elk (Moose), Deer, Caribou, Antelope and Brown Bear. Steppes and forest margins support Marmot, Muskrat, Fox, Steppe Fox, and Sable. Remote mountains support wild cats such as Lynx and Snow Leopard. Mongolia is home of the wild Ass, Wild Camel and Wild Sheep. Wild Horse (Takhi) is being reintroduced from captivity abroad. Bird life is rich and includes Golden Eagle, Bearded Vulture and other birds of prey, while the 2.000 lakes are a magnet for water birds including Storks and even Herring Gull and Relict Gull. The 2.000 lakes support unique fish life.
Mongolian (noun and adjective)
2.3 million people, and one of the lowest population densities in the world. 1.5 inhabitants per 1 sq.km.
Very high, in excess of 80%.
85% Mongol, mostly Khalkha Mongol.
Also 7% Turkic (mainly Kazakh), 4.6% Tungusic
and 3.4% other groups. Four million Mongols live outside of Mongolia.
Over 90% Khalkha Mongol (‘Mongolian Language’). The script is Cyrillic due to Russian influence but a switch back to traditional script has begun in schools. Minor languages include Khazakh.
Russian is spoken by many graduates, with Mongolians educated in Russia. English is replacing Russia as the second language. German is spoken by many graduates, and a little Spanish is spoken. Chinese not widely understood except in border areas.
94% Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism, also elements of Shamanism. 6% Muslim (mainly in the south- west).
Government of Mongolia
Parliamentary, with President second in authority to State Great Hural (Parliament).
1921 final independence from China. 1990 democratic reform and shift from dependence on the former Soviet Union.
1960 and 1992, some revision 1996.
21 Aimags (provinces), capital city, plus 3 autonomous cities ( Darkhan, Erdenet, Choir)
Currency is the Tugrug.
1200 Tugrugs = 1 US$ (Jan, 2005)