Mongolia is a country of ancient culture and
unique historical remains of all stages
of human history in Central Asia.
Early Beginnings Stone Age to Bronze age
Recent archeological discoveries have proved that Mongolia was inhabited 500.000 years ago. The first existence of human campsites, Paleolithic stone inscriptions and paintings, different kinds of utensil made of clay and other original things have been found Bayan-Hongor Aimag and other aimags. This is evidence that this part of Central Asia was the heart of the ancient civilization in the Paleolithic Era (‘stone age’) and there are widespread archeological remains of the ensuing Mesolithic Era, Neolithic Era and Bronze Era.
Empire of the Huns
By 209 B.C, the early tribes of Huns set up the first example of the original state and classic society in Central Asia. The Huns domain stretched from Korea in the east to Lake Baikal in Siberia, until the empire collapsed in 98 A.D due to internal conflicts.
Rise and fall of Sumbe State
The first state to emerge after the Huns was of the Sumbe, a Mongolian tribe who probably came from the eastern Gobi. The Sumbe State grew powerful and conquered northern China, but overthrown by another Mongolian clan, the Toba clan, who took control of the Sumbe State in 250 A.D.
Nirun State and Tureg State
Later, control of the Toba State passed to yet another Mongolian clan, the Nirun. The fate of the Nirun State was rather different. During the 4th Century A.D, thousands of Turkic people had migrated into the region, crossing theAltai Mountains, and originally employed by the Nirun as blacksmiths and iron forgers. The Turkic people rebelled against the Nirun and won control in 552 A.D creating the Turkic State (‘Turk Khanate’). The Turkic people were not only skilled at animal husbandry and metalworking, but also in growing wheat. The Turkic people extended the Feudal System, but the Turkic State was defeated by internal onflicts, disappearing around 745 A.D.
Uigur State and Kidan State
Control passed to the Uigur tribe, and the Uigur State became the most powerful in Central Asia, but did not control all of Mongolia. It was the Kidan tribe, who took control of all Mongolia in 907 A.D. Many cities and communities were erected by the Uigurs and Kidans in the 7-8th Century A.D. Ruins such as Kherlen Bars City, Khadaasangiin Chin Togo, and Khar Burgh in the territory of Mongolia prove this. The economic and social development of the Kidan State influenced many other nomadic tribes, and occurred before the feudal State of Mongolia formed.
Rise of the Mongol Empire
The Kidan State crumbled in the 12th Century A.D when several tribes invaded the region at the same time. Control of the region was now fragmented and confused. From this chaos and confusion arose the united Mongol Empire of Chingis Khan. His father began the process and the son completed it. The son fought and won 35 battles in Mongolia, so uniting all 81 differing tribes by 1206 A.D when he was crowned as Chingis Khan. United under his banner, with the advantage of highly mobile cavalry, the Mongols swept into power across much of China and reached the edge ofWestern Europe. The momentum continued after his death, an invincible combination of Mongolian cavalry and recruited foot soldiers using novel methods of military strategy, battle tactics, superior weapons, and by these means created the largest land empire the World has ever seen, before or since.
Resistance to Chinese encroachment
After centuries of domination, the Mongol Empire began to fall apart in 1398 A.D, perhaps inevitable with the strategic error moving the capital of the Mongol Empire from Kharhorum to Beijing in neighboring China. Splintering of the Empire’s command and control structure led to the Chinese Min Dynasty being able to seize much territory and wage a military campaign from the 1360′s to 1450. During this long struggle, Mongol Queen Mandukhai, Batmunkh Khan and the Oriat statesman King Esen Taish successfully defended Mongol territory.
Subjugation by Manchu Empire
In a later phase of internal division, a Manchu State formed in north east China, and invaded and conquered southern Mongolia, ever since named Inner Mongolia. Then the Manchu crossed the Gobi Desert and subjugated what was to then be called Outer Mongolia.
Restoration of Mongolian sovereignty
More than 200 years later, as a result of the Mongolian national movement for independence, the Mongol Monarchy was re established in 1911.
Creation of People’s Republic
The National Revolution won power in 1921. The first State Ikh Hural adopted the first Constitution of Mongolia on 26th November 1924 and proclaimed an independent People’s Republic.
Repulsion of Japanese invasion 1939
In 1939 Japanese ground and air forces invaded eastern Mongolia. After fierce battles, they were defeated and expelled by combined Mongolian Soviet forces. Eastern Mongolia has many monuments to these strategic victories. Japan did not try to invade Mongolia again.
War with Nazi Germany
Mongolian forces assisted the Red Army of the Soviet Union in the defeat of Nazi Germany on the Eastern Front. War memorials exist in various parts of the country. The most prominent is on the way from Ulaanbaatar to the airport, a roadside memorial to the Mongolian Tank Regiment, complete with Tank.
The 1990 was the historical year. The political power was democratized in Mongolia. The president and parliament have been elected.